When you write a research paper or report you need to include a bibliography or a list of the books, articles, or other publications that you used in your research.The pieces of information used to describe a specific publication are grouped together to make up a citation or a bibliographic citation.
Why you need to cite your sources:
In the text, cite publications by listing the last names of the authors and the year, which is called the author-date method of citation; e.g., (Duan et al. 1990; Frater and Packer 1992a). Prepare an appendix listing all references alphabetically by last name of the first author. For anonymous reports and standards, alphabetize by the issuing institution. Double-space the reference section.k.
Irish, J. L., and D. T. Resio. 2013. “Method for estimating future hurricane flood probabilities and associated uncertainty.” J. Waterway, Port, Coastal, Ocean Eng. 139 (2): 04013001. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)WW.1943-5460.0000157.
Eshenaur, S. R., J. M. Kulicki, and D. R. Mertz. 1991. “Retrofitting distortion-induced fatigue cracking of noncomposite steel girder-floorbeam-stringer bridges.” In Proc., 8th Annual Int. Bridge Conf., 380–388. Pittsburgh: Engineers’ Society of Western Pennsylvania.
Tommelein, I. D., and S. Gholami. 2012. “Root causes of clashes in building information models (BIM).” In Proc., 20th Annual Conf. Int. Group for Lean Construction, 121–130. San Diego: International Group for Lean Construction. https://www.iglc.net. https://doi.org/10.5642/jhummath.201102.05.
Karam, G. N. 1991. “Effect of fiber volume on the strength properties of short fiber reinforced cements with application to bending strength of WFRC.” In Vol. 1 of Proc., 6th Technical. Conf. of the American Society for Composites, edited by A. Smith, 548–557. Lancaster, PA: Technomics.
ASCE uses the author-date method for in-text references, whereby the citation reads as the last names of the authors, then the year (e.g., Smith 2004, or Smith and Jones 2004).
If author is mentioned in sentence: Indicate year of publication only in parentheses following the author's name.
Two individual authors: Include the last name of each author.
Three or more individual authors:
The first author’s name is given, followed by “et al.” (no italics) and the year.