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CE 1001/L Introduction to Civil Engineering

Why do we cite?

ASCE Citation Format


In the text, cite publications by listing the last names of the authors and the year, which is called the author-date method of citation; e.g., (Duan et al. 1990; Frater and Packer 1992a). Prepare an appendix listing all references alphabetically by last name of the first author. For anonymous reports and standards, alphabetize by the issuing institution. Double-space the reference section.k.


ASCE Citation Resources:


Common examples:
If a whole book is used (or pages here and there throughout the book), page numbers need not be given. If no author is listed, titles should be alphabetized. If a specific chapter is being used, the chapter title and inclusive page numbers should be included. Reports must include the full institution name and location.
Evans, G. M., and J. C. Furlong. 2003. Environmental biotechnology: Theory and applications. Chichester, UK: Wiley.
Moody’s municipal and government manual. 1988. New York: Moody’s Investors Service.
Journal Articles
The standard format for a paper published in a US journal is as follows:
Beskos, D. E. 1987. “Boundary element methods in dynamic analysis.” Appl. Mech. Rev., 40 (1), 1–23.


Citations specifically published from ASCE journals:

Irish, J. L., and D. T. Resio. 2013. “Method for estimating future hurricane flood probabilities and associated uncertainty.” J. Waterway, Port, Coastal, Ocean Eng. 139 (2): 04013001.

Building Codes and Provisions
Building codes, provisions, and standards should be listed alphabetically by the abbreviated name of the promulgating institution.
ACI (American Concrete Institute). 1989. Building code requirement for reinforced concrete. ACI 318-89. Farmington Hills, MI: ACI.
BOCA (Building Officials and Code Administrators International). 1993. The BOCA national building code. Country Club Hills, IL: BOCA.
CEN (European Committee for Standardization). 1992. Design of steel structures, part 1.1.Eurocode 3, Brussels, Belgium: CEN.
Data Sets
References for data sets should include author name, year of publication, titles (followed by edition or version number) in quotation marks, publisher or distributor, access date, and electronic identifier (DOI or URL).
Ansolabehere, S., M. Palmer, and A. Lee. 2014. “Precinct-level election data. V1.” Harvard Election Data Archive. Accessed January 20, 2017.
Thernstrom, S. 1986. “Boston mobility study, 1880.” ICPSR 7550. Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research. Accessed November 28, 2017.

Eshenaur, S. R., J. M. Kulicki, and D. R. Mertz. 1991. “Retrofitting distortion-induced fatigue cracking of noncomposite steel girder-floorbeam-stringer bridges.” In Proc., 8th Annual Int. Bridge Conf., 380–388. Pittsburgh: Engineers’ Society of Western Pennsylvania.

Tommelein, I. D., and S. Gholami. 2012. “Root causes of clashes in building information models (BIM).” In Proc., 20th Annual Conf. Int. Group for Lean Construction, 121–130. San Diego: International Group for Lean Construction.

Karam, G. N. 1991. “Effect of fiber volume on the strength properties of short fiber reinforced cements with application to bending strength of WFRC.” In Vol. 1 of Proc., 6th Technical. Conf. of the American Society for Composites, edited by A. Smith, 548–557. Lancaster, PA: Technomics.

The following elements should be included: author’s name or owner of the website (if known); year of publication or last revision (if available; use “n.d.” if no date is available); full title of the specific page, in quotation marks; title of website (if applicable), in italics; the date of access, and the full web address.
Arizona Dept. of Commerce. 2005. “Community profile: Hualapai Indian Reservation.” Accessed March 17, 2014.
Foucher, J. 2017. “The role of construction companies before, during, and after disaster.” Construct Connect (blog). Accessed
October 11, 2017.
In-text Citations

ASCE uses the author-date method for in-text references, whereby the citation reads as the last names of the authors, then the year (e.g., Smith 2004, or Smith and Jones 2004).

Basic format:

  • This is the sentence paraphrased (Author Year).
  • "This is the sentence quoted" (Author Year).

If author is mentioned in sentence: Indicate year of publication only in parentheses following the author's name.

  • Example: According to Wynham (2003), no additional support is necessary.

Two individual authors: Include the last name of each author.

  • Example: Construction failure is avoidable (Feld and Carper 1977).

Three or more individual authors:

The first author’s name is given, followed by “et al.” (no italics) and the year.

  • Example: Innovative technologies can be used to determine the longevity of key infrastructure features (Fwa et al. 2004).

Citation Managers

End Note Online 

Endnote Online is a FREE tool that can be used to create and manage citations for all your research projects.

A  free, easy-to-use Firefox extension to help you collect, manage, cite, and share your research sources. It lives right where you do your work—in the web browser itself.

Zotero Introduction
A guide to using Zotero to collect, organize, and cite your sources.