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CE 3211 Water Resources Engineering

Why do we cite?

Citing Your Work

When you write a research paper or report you need to include a bibliography or a list of the books, articles, or other publications that you used in your research. This lets your readers know that what you write is based on established research, that you didn't just make it up. And it helps any readers who want to retrace your steps or recreate your work.

Many guides are available to help students format citations for bibliographies and notes. These guides are called STYLE MANUALS. Use the style manual recommended by your professor.

Some Civil Engineering professors suggest that students use the ASCE style manual. See:


How to cite data

  • Milberger, S. (2002). "Evaluation of violence against women with physical disabilities in Michigan, 2000-2001" (ICPSR version) [data file and codebook]. doi:10.3886/ICPSR03414


In-text Citations

Basic format:

  • This is the sentence paraphrased (Author Year).
  • "This is the sentence quoted" (Author Year).

If author is mentioned in sentence: Indicate year of publication only in parentheses following the author's name.

  • Example: According to Wynham (2003), no additional support is necessary.

Two individual authors: Include the last name of each author.

  • Example: Construction failure is avoidable (Feld and Carper 1977).

Three or more individual authors:

The first author’s name is given, followed by “et al.” (no italics) and the year.

  • Example: Innovative technologies can be used to determine the longevity of key infrastructure features (Fwa et al. 2004).

Multiple works produced by the same author(s) in the same year:

  • Designate works with sequential lower-case letters appended to the year.

Citation Managers

EndNote Web
A citation management tool available as part of our Web of Science (WoS) subscription. To use EndNote Web, connect to Web of Science and look for the My EndNote Web link near the top of the screen. You'll need to create a personal account in WoS to use EndNote Web. Tutorials are available.

Zotero
A  free, easy-to-use Firefox extension to help you collect, manage, cite, and share your research sources. It lives right where you do your work—in the web browser itself.

Zotero Introduction
A gide to using Zotero to collect, organize, and cite your sources.